Understand the use of brackets to determine the order of operations.
Extend mental-methods for whole-number calculations, for example to subtract one near-multiple of 1000 from another (e.g. 6070 - 4097).
Use short cut strategies to multiply e.g. 19 times a number is 20 times the number subtract the number.
Use short cut strategies to divide e.g. division by 5 is division by 10 followed by doubling.
Extend mental-methods for whole-number calculations with multiplication and division. For example to multiply a two-digit by a one-digit number, 12 × 9, work out 12 × 10 then subtract 12.
Understand the pattern of results found from the positive integer powers. i.e. the continuing division of successive results as the power reduces by 1 and continued multiplication as the power increases by 1. Spot patterns in the sequence, e.g. in the units digit. Know the terms square (squared) and cube (cubed). Understand what is meant by a number to any positive integer power.
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